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By Meghnad Saha , Srivastava

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Temperature 17 When thermal contact between two closed systems, A and B, causes B to get hotter and A to get colder, no matter where that contact is made, there is no process that can cause A to get hotter and B to get colder which does not involve a work interaction. This generalisation of experience is one statement of what is known as the second law of thermodynamics [1 ]. The second law allows a consistent ordering, in terms of hotness, to be made for any two closed systems that are in mechanical and chemical equilibrium.

2 Discuss what is meant by the temperature of an individual atom of a system. 3 Classify the following coordinates as intensive or extensive: pressure, volume, temperature, load, length. 4 Classify the following statements as true or false: 23 (a) For a closed system an isothermal process is one that necessarily takes place at constant density. (b) In a closed system with coordinates pressure, volume and temperature, an isothermal process cannot take place at constant pressure. 5 An empirical temperature scale 6R is defined so that equal changes in the resistance R of a length of pure copper wire indicate equal changes in temperature.

It is the total amount of adiabatic work done on the system that is determined by the initial and final equilibrium states. As an illustration of what this implies, consider a system consisting of a mass of fluid in a vessel with impermeable, adiabatic walls. , is included in the system. When a current I flows through the resistor under a potential difference E for a time t, the work done on the system is Eft. When the paddle wheel is caused to rotate by an applied torque T, the work done on the system when the paddle wheel rotates through an angle a is m.

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A Treatise on Heat by Meghnad Saha , Srivastava

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