By Alan Marzilli
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Extra resources for Affirmative Action
Supporters say that affirmative action policies are needed to help to correct these and other injustices. 41 Efforts to Promote “Diversity” Harm Society I n the University of Michigan cases, the university’s policy was to extend preferences to groups that have historically been the victims of discrimination—African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Although a desire to remedy past discrimination might have influenced the decision by university administrators to enact this policy, the university’s stated justification was to increase “diversity” on campus.
In the Bakke case a quarter of a century earlier: that diversity is a “compelling state interest” and, therefore, that states, state universities, and employers may pursue the goal of racial and ethnic diversity without violating the Constitution. The Grutter decision relied on growing evidence of specific tangible benefits credited to diversity, well beyond principles of fairness or of remedying past discrimination. Despite the invalidation of the university’s undergraduate affirmative action plan in the Gratz decision, many proponents of affirmative action considered the University of Michigan decisions an important victory.
From Grutter v. , dissenting) 64 AFFIRMATIVE ACTION labeled affirmative action programs as paternalistic attempts to help minorities that wind up doing more harm than good.
Affirmative Action by Alan Marzilli