By Benjamin Madley
among 1846 and 1873, California’s Indian inhabitants plunged from maybe 150,000 to 30,000. Benjamin Madley is the 1st historian to discover the total volume of the slaughter, the involvement of country and federal officers, the taxpayer money that supported the violence, indigenous resistance, who did the killing, and why the killings ended. This deeply researched e-book is a complete and chilling background of an American genocide.
Madley describes pre-contact California and precursors to the genocide sooner than explaining how the Gold Rush stirred vigilante violence opposed to California Indians. He narrates the increase of a state-sanctioned killing desktop and the wide societal, judicial, and political aid for genocide. Many participated: vigilantes, volunteer country militiamen, U.S. military infantrymen, U.S. congressmen, California governors, and others. The kingdom and federal governments spent at the very least $1,700,000 on campaigns opposed to California Indians. in addition to comparing govt officers’ culpability, Madley considers why the slaughter constituted genocide and the way different attainable genocides inside and past the Americas will be investigated utilizing the tools offered during this groundbreaking book.
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Additional resources for An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873
Likewise, reported killings of non-Indians by Indians—which total fewer than 1,400—appear in Appendix 4. Tables providing death toll estimates of selected major massacres appear in Appendix 5. Appendix 6 contains information on California state militia campaigns, and Appendix 7 does the same for US Army operations. Recording the numbers of California Indian people killed is not a mere academic exercise. As anyone who has ever lost a loved one knows, the death of a single person is a profound loss.
1815. Courtesy of The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. ”22 Officially sanctioned corporal punishment underscored California Indians’ second-class legal status. Franciscans had mission Indians whipped, shackled, or placed in the stocks for “desertion . . ” In 1775, Father Serra himself wrote that he wanted some San Carlos Mission Indians to suffer “two or three whippings . . on dif ferent days,” explaining that they “may serve . . ” Serra condoned the physical striking of California Indians by missionaries.
Such atrocities may also have been driven by genocidal impulses. 47 In sum, the period between the secularization of the missions in the 1830s and 1846 was harrowing and catastrophic for many California Indian peoples. In combination with the mass death of the mission period, devastating epidemics and violence dramatically diminished California Indian populations in the 1830s and early 1840s, destabilized many of their social structures, wreaked havoc on multiple indigenous economies, and critically weakened many California Indian peoples’ ability to resist the invasion and violence that began in 1846.
An American Genocide: The United States and the California Indian Catastrophe, 1846-1873 by Benjamin Madley