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Extra info for An Introduction To Ancient Greek
There are three genders in Greek: masculine, feminine, and neuter. All nouns have gender, either natural gender or purely grammatical gender. Usually nouns for males are masculine, those for females feminine: ὁ ἀνήρ the man, ἡ γυνή the woman. , all diminutive nouns in ‑ιον are neuter, as τὸ παιδίον little child. The gender of every noun must be learned. ). The case tells the relationship of a noun or pronoun to the other words in the sentence. There are five cases in Greek: nominative, genitive, dative, accusative, and vocative.
4. ἀνάγκη μέτρον ἔχειν. : it is necessary] 5. τὸ παιδίον ἐθέλει παιδεύεσθαι. 6. ὁ δὲ χρόνος παιδεύει τὸ παιδίον. 7. ὁ ἄνθρωπος παιδεύεται τὸ παιδίον. 8. τὰ παιδία εἰς τὴν νῆσον πέμπεται. 9. τοῖς γὰρ θεοῖς ἀνάγκη τὰ δῶρα ἄγειν. 10. οἱ μὲν ἄνθρωποι τῷ νόμῳ πείθονται· τὰ δὲ παιδία τοῖς φίλοις πείθεται. 11. ὁ λόγος ἐστὶ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν. [ἐστί is] 12. τὰ γὰρ δῶρα ἄγομεν παρὰ τοὺς θεούς. 13. σὺν ταῖς φίλαις ἔρχονται. 14. εἰς ἀνθρώπους λέγει ὁ θεός. [εἰς here: before] 15. σὺν θεῷ εἰρήνην πράττετε. [πράττω bring about] Nouns of the First (‑η) and Second (‑ο) Declensions; Article 16.
The article (τὸ ἄρθρον) we recognize (in English grammar) as belonging to the same class as adjectives. In Greek (ὁ, ἡ, τό) and in English (the), it is really Grammatical Outline a demonstrative (cf. this, that): in both languages the article is etymologically related to the demonstrative. The definite article is used when we want to refer to a particular (definite) member or members of a class. Greek has no indefinite article (a, an), which we use in English to indicate that we do not mean a particular member of a class.
An Introduction To Ancient Greek by Hackett