By David Cowan
The teachings are transparent, in non-technical language, and feature beneficiant examples, with lots of workouts for translation from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. this is often the guide that scholars drawn to Arabic as a residing and increasing international language will want. it's the first to deal almost always with glossy literary Arabic. In Mr Cowan's phrases: 'The goal is to provide an explanation for to the scholars, in as concise a fashion as attainable, the grammatical constitution of the trendy Arabic literary language because it is located this present day in newspapers, magazines, books, the radio, and public talking. i've got endeavoured to limit the cloth to the minimal which could function a stepping-stone to a deeper examine of Arabic. because the primary grammar of written Arabic has infrequently replaced as an creation to the classical language additionally. Having as soon as mastered its contents the coed must have a valid take hold of of Arabic grammar and will then direct his reports in the direction of smooth literature or classical in keeping with his wishes and dispositions.
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While I did not maintain a bilingual household, I did consciously attempt to retain cultural elements of their Japanese background for my children: food, customs such as decorating the house with Japanese-style flower arrangements and leaving shoes at the entrance – the word for this ‘shoe-off place’– being retained by us in Japanese. After their father arrived with complete sets of armour and bamboo swords for them, I found a kendo club. They both found great satisfaction in following the rituals of the sport.
In press). , in press). Language attrition researchers have long been aware of the complexities of studying this phenomenon: (Andersen, 1982; Schmid, 2002, 2004). Problems, from agreeing on definitions, research design, data collection instruments and selection of participants, through to the interpretation of results, continue to complicate research. Schmid, writing in 2004, captured the tone of debate over fundamental issues: It is symptomatic that in 1998, Kees de Bot pointed out in exasperation – and doubtlessly not for the first time – that he and Bert Weltens were the two only Exploring the Background 33 ‘knights’ in pursuit of the shining goal of terminological distinction between Shift (intergenerational) and Attrition (intragenerational) as hyponyms of the more general Loss.
162) Exploring the Background 39 is well known and has since been re-examined from several perspectives that seek to put it on a secure empirical footing. Paul Friedrich also draws our attention to Sapir’s neglected following paragraph: The understanding of a simple poem, for instance, involves not merely an understanding of single words in their average significance, but a full comprehension of the whole life of the community as it is mirrored in the words, or as it is suggested by their overtones.
An Introduction to Modern Literary Arabic by David Cowan