By Joan Beal
This sequence offers introductions to the most components of English language examine. Volumes disguise features of the heritage and constitution of the language reminiscent of: syntax, phonology, morphology, nearby and social version, previous English, center English, Early smooth English and overseas Englishes.
content material: 1. creation: are nearby forms doomed?; 2. accessory; three. Dialect I: 'grammar'; four. Dialect II: lexis; five. The Diffusion version; 6. Levelling; 7. neighborhood id/ groups of perform; eight. Stereotypes; nine. end; 10. Resources.
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Additional resources for An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England
In most varieties within England, including RP, yod-dropping is now found in words such as chew, rude and suit; after /n/, /t/ and /d/ in words such as new, tune and due, it is found in London and parts of the Midlands; but the full extension of yod-dropping to all environments, including words such as beautiful, few and human, is largely confined to East Anglia. 5 ‘happY tensing’ The distribution of Trudgill’s next feature, the final vowel in coffee, is much less straightforward. e. the pronunciation of this vowel as a tense and sometimes long /i( )/ rather than a short, lax /i/ or even /ε/, is, according to Trudgill, found everywhere in England except ‘the Central North, Central Lancashire, Northwest Midlands and Central Midlands’ (1999a: 62).
2 Regional, non-standard or sub-standard? 1, regional and other non-standard forms and constructions are often viewed by non-linguists as being ‘uneducated’, ‘incorrect’ or simply ‘bad grammar’. Whilst attitudes to regional accents tend to be ambivalent, with positive and negative traits attributed to them and their speakers, non-standard morphology and syntax are rarely seen in a positive light. One reason for this could be that, whereas at least some regional accents are fairly well recognised, and dialect vocabulary is often considered ‘authentic’, many features of non-standard morphology and syntax are fairly widespread within England, and so are considered to be social rather than regional variables.
In the North-East, obligation is expressed by have got to in both positive and negative sentences. Thus, you haven’t got to means ‘you are obliged not to’, whereas in Standard English and other dialects it would mean ‘you are not obliged to’. Finally, whilst shall is rarely used in any dialect of English, or even in colloquial Standard English, in most dialects it is used in first person questions, such as Shall I make you a cup of tea? In the North-East, as in Scotland and Ireland, will is used even in this context: Will I make you a cup of tea?
An introduction to regional Englishes : dialect variation in England by Joan Beal